NIF 2.0 Core Ontology

IRI:
http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#
Current version:
Versioning done on resource level. See https://github.com/NLP2RDF/ontologies/blob/master/nif-core/nif-core.ttl
Authors:
Sebastian Hellmann
Contributors:
Martin Brümmer
Publisher:
AKSW, University Leipzig
Other visualisation:
Ontology source
Machester Ontology Browser

Abstract

The NLP Interchange Format (NIF) is an RDF/OWL-based format that aims to achieve interoperability between Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools, language resources and annotations. NIF consists of specifications, ontologies and software, which are combined under the version identifier "2.0", but are versioned individually. This ontology is developed by the NLP2RDF project (http://nlp2rdf.org) and provided as part of NIF 2.0 under CC-BY license as well as Apache 2.0. The ontology contains seven core URIs (String, RFC5147String, Context, isString, referenceContext, beginIndex, endIndex) that provide the foundation to express NLP annotations effectively in RDF.

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Data Properties
  5. Annotation Properties
  6. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

For a more concise description about NIF, we refer the reader to the ISWC 2013 in Use paper: Integrating NLP using Linked Data by Sebastian Hellmann, Jens Lehmann, Sören Auer, and Martin Brümmer available at: http://svn.aksw.org/papers/2013/ISWC_NIF/public.pdf Also the NLP2RDF project page (http://nlp2rdf.org) provides more general documentation and pointers.

The NIF 2.0 Core Ontology (http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#) provides classes and properties to describe the relations between substrings, text, documents by assigning URIs to strings. These URIs can then be used as subjects in RDF triples and therefore they can be annotated easily. The NIF 2.0 Core Specification defines how such URIs are created and used: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/specification/core.html and it makes sense to read this document first, so you can understand the definitions in this ontology better.

The main class in this ontology is nif:String, which is the class of all words over the alphabet of Unicode characters (sometimes called Σ∗). We built NIF upon the Unicode Normalization Form C, as this follows the recommendation of the RDF standard for rdf:Literal. Indices are to be counted in code units as is common in most programming language and SPARQL engines ( see 17.4.3.2 STRLEN and 17.4.3.3 SUBSTR on http://www.w3.org/TR/sparql11-query/).

Each URI Scheme (nif:URIScheme) used to address strings is a subclass of nif:String and puts further restrictions over the syntax of the URIs. For example, instances of type nif:RFC5147String have to adhere to the Syntax and Semantics of RFC 5147 (http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5147). Users of NIF can create their own URI schemes by subclassing nif:String and providing documentation on the Web in the rdfs:comment field.

Another important subclass of nif:String is the nif:Context OWL class. This class is assigned to the whole string of the text (i.e. all characters). The purpose of an individual of this class is special, because the string of this individual is used to calculate the indices for all substrings. Therefore, all substrings have to have a relation nif:referenceContext pointing to an instance of nif:Context. Furthermore, the datatype property nif:isString can be used to include the reference text as a literal within the RDF as is required for the web service scenario. An example of NIF Core can be seen on the top left of the example Figure.

Ontology models

This ontology is split in different complimentary parts:

* a terminological model (containing rdfs:comment, rdfs:label, rdfs:subClassOf, rdfs:subPropertyOf, rdfs:range and rdfs:domain statements)

* an inference model (containing owl:TransitiveProperty, owl:hasKey), see nif-core-inf.ttl

* a validation model (containing owl:FunctionalProperty, owl:DisjointWith), see nif-core-val.ttl

* a Stanford profile model (containing a more complex structure)

An overview is given at the bottom of: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/

Feedback

If you'd like to leave feedback, please open an issue on GitHub (https://github.com/NLP2RDF/ontologies/issues) and read the README (https://github.com/NLP2RDF/ontologies#readme) or write an email to the mailing list: http://lists.informatik.uni-leipzig.de/mailman/listinfo/nlp2rdf

Versioning process is explained here: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/specification/version.html Changelog is written to rdfs:comment (resource level versioning).

Classes

Consecutive Stringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#CString

Current version:
0.1.0

A URI Scheme for NIF which is able to refer to a single, consecutive string in a context. Note that any scheme subclassing this class, requires the existence of beginIndex, endIndex and referenceContext .

This is an abstract class and should not be serialized.

has super-classes
URI Schemec
has sub-classes
Consecutive String Instantiationc, Offset-based Stringc, RFC 5147 Stringc

Consecutive String Instantiationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#CStringInst

Current version:
0.0.0

An abitrary URI (e.g. a URN) for an arbitrary string of the context. This is roughly the same as TextAnnotations are currently implemented in Stanbol.

has super-classes
Consecutive Stringc

Contextc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Context

Current version:
1.0.1

The string that serves as a context for its substrings. The Unicode String given in the nif:isString property must be used to calculate the begin and endIndex for all nif:Strings that have a nif:referenceContext property to this URI. For further information, see http://svn.aksw.org/papers/2013/ISWC_NIF/public.pdf

Changelog

* 1.0.1. improved documentation

has super-classes
Stringc
is in domain of
broader Contextop, is stringdp, narrower Contextop, source URLop
is in range of
broader Contextop, has contextop, narrower Contextop, reference contextop

Context Collectionc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#ContextCollection

Current version:
0.1.1

A collection of contexts used to create an unordered set of context via the nif:hasContext property. This can be compared to a document collection, but here it is a collection of nif:Context and therefore a collection of annotated strings, not documents.

Open Issues

Investigate ordered collections

Changelog

* 0.1.1 improved documentation

is in domain of
has contextop

Context Hash Based Stringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#ContextHashBasedString

Current version:
1.0.0

cf. https://www.google.de/search?q=Linked-Data+Aware+URI+Schemes+for+Referencing+Text

has super-classes
URI Schemec

Offset-based Stringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#OffsetBasedString

Current version:
1.1.0

cf. Linked-Data Aware URI Schemes for Referencing Text Fragments by Sebastian Hellmann, Jens Lehmann und Sören Auer in EKAW 2012 http://jens-lehmann.org/files/2012/ekaw_nif.pdf

requires the existence of begin, endIndex and referenceContext

Changelog:

* 1.0.0 originally a plain text string was attached to this uri scheme, but this was removed later, because of complaints and complexity.

* 1.1.0 subclassing of nif:CString

has super-classes
Consecutive Stringc

Paragraphc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Paragraph

Current version:
0.1.1

A paragraph.

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 fixed spelling, added language tag

has super-classes
Structurec

Phrasec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Phrase

Current version:
0.1.1

A nif:Phrase can be a nif:String, that is a chunk of several words or a word itself (e.g. a NounPhrase as a Named Entity). The term is underspecified and can be compatible with many defintitions of phrase. Please subClass it to specify the meaning (e.g. for Chunking or Phrase Structure Grammar). Example: ((My dog)(also)(likes)(eating (sausage)))

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 fixed spelling

has super-classes
Structurec

RFC 5147 Stringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#RFC5147String

Current version:
1.1.0

cf. http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5147 URIs of this class have to conform with the syntax of RFC 5147 in a way that the end on a valid identifier, if you remove the prefix. Note that unlike RFC 5147 NIF does not requrire '#' URIs. So valid URIs are http://example.org#char=0,28 , http://example.org/whatever/char=0,28 , http://example.org/nif?char=0,28

Changelog:

* 1.1.0 changed subclass to CString .

* 1.1.1 typo in rdfs:label and extension of comment

has super-classes
Consecutive Stringc

Sentencec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Sentence

Current version:
0.1.1

A sentence.

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 fixed spelling, added language tag

has super-classes
Structurec
is in domain of
has first wordop, has last wordop, has wordop, nif:nextSentenceop, nif:nextSentenceTransop, nif:previousSentenceop, nif:previousSentenceTransop
is in range of
nif:nextSentenceop, nif:nextSentenceTransop, nif:previousSentenceop, nif:previousSentenceTransop, nif:sentenceop

Stringc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#String

Current version:
1.0.1

Individuals of this class are a string, i.e. Unicode characters, who have been given a URI and are used in the subject of an RDF statement.

This class is abstract and should not be serialized.

NIF-Stanbol (nif-stanbol.ttl):

subclassOf nifs:Annotation because it "annotates" strings for example with begin and end index. The class is similar to fise:TextAnnotation

Changelog

* 1.0.1. improved documentation

has sub-classes
Contextc, Structurec, URI Schemec
is in domain of
Confidence of OLiA tagdp, OLiA linkop, Part of speech tagdp, Provenance of OLiA tagop, afterdp, anchor ofdp, beforedp, begin indexdp, dependencyop, end indexdp, headdp, interop, lemmadp, opinionop, reference contextop, sentiment valuedp, stemdp, sub stringop, super Stringop, transitive version of dependencyop, transitive version of subStringop, transitive version of superStringop, was converted fromop
is in range of
dependencyop, interop, sub stringop, super Stringop, transitive version of dependencyop, transitive version of subStringop, transitive version of superStringop, was converted fromop

Structurec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Structure

Current version:
0.1.0

A structure is a more or less arbitrary label for a partitioning of a string. We do not follow a strict approach for what a word, phrase, sentence, title, paragraph is. These labels enable the definition processes for tool chains, e.g. tool analyses nif:Paragraph and calculates term frequency.

This is an abstract class and should not be serialized.

Changelog

0.1.1 not to be serialized comment

has super-classes
Stringc
has sub-classes
Paragraphc, Phrasec, Sentencec, Titlec, Wordc

Titlec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Title

Current version:
0.1.1

A title within a text.

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 fixed spelling, added language tag

has super-classes
Structurec

URI Schemec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#URIScheme

Current version:
0.1.1

A URI Scheme for NIF, subclasses need to define guidelines on the URI Scheme as well as the text it refers to. This class is just to keep some order, and should not be serialized.

This is an abstract class and should not be serialized.

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 changed comment

has super-classes
Stringc
has sub-classes
Consecutive Stringc, Context Hash Based Stringc

Wordc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#Word

Current version:
0.2.1

The Word class represents strings that are tokens or words. A string is a Word, if it is a word. We don't nitpic about whether it is a a pronoun, a name, a punctuation mark or an apostrophe or whether it is separated by white space or something else. The string 'He enters the room.' for example has 5 words. Words are assigned by a tokenizer NIF Implementation.

We adopted the definition style from foaf:Person, see here: http://xmlns.com/foaf/spec/#term_Person We are well aware that the world out there is much more complicated, but we are ignorant about it, for the following reasons:

1. NIF has a client-server and the client has the ability to dictate the tokenization to the server (i.e. the NIF Implementation) by sending properly tokenized NIF annotated with nif:Word. All NIF Implementations are supposed to honor and respect the current assignment of the Word class. Thus the client should decide which NIF Implementation should create the tokenization. Therefore this class is not descriptive, but prescriptive.

2. The client may choose to send an existing tokenization to a NIF Implementation, with the capability to change (for better or for worse) the tokenization.

The class has not been named 'Token' as the NLP definition of 'token' is descriptive (and not well-defined), while the assignment of what is a Word and what not is definatory, e.g. "can't" could be described as one, two or three tokens or defined as being one, two or three words. For further reading, we refer the reader to: By all these lovely tokens... Merging conflicting tokenizations by Christian Chiarcos, Julia Ritz, and Manfred Stede. Language Resources and Evaluation 46(1):53-74 (2012) or the short form: http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/W09-3005

There the task at hand is to merge two tokenization T_1 and T_2 which is normally not the case in the NIF world.

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 fixed spelling

* 0.2.1 added a proper definition.

has super-classes
Structurec
is in domain of
nif:nextWordop, nif:nextWordTransop, nif:previousWordop, nif:previousWordTransop, nif:sentenceop
is in range of
has first wordop, has last wordop, has wordop, nif:nextWordop, nif:nextWordTransop, nif:previousWordop, nif:previousWordTransop

Object Properties

annotationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#annotation

Current version:
0.1.1

see Towards Web-Scale Collaborative Knowledge Extraction http://svn.aksw.org/papers/2012/PeoplesWeb/public_preprint.pdf‎ page 21 .

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 Fixed page number

has sub-properties
OLiA linkop

broader Contextop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#broaderContext

Current version:
0.1.0

This property should be used to express that one Context is contained in another Context, e.g. several sentences of a document are modelled indivudally and refer to the broader context of the whole document.

has domain
Contextc
has range
Contextc

dependencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#dependency

Current version:
0.1.0

A dependency relation pointing from gov to dep.

Changelog:

* 0.1.0 initial commit of property "dependency"

* 0.1.1 made the property subproperty of dependencyTrans

has super-properties
transitive version of dependencyop
has domain
Stringc
has range
Stringc

has contextop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#hasContext

Current version:
0.2.0

Links a nif:ContextCollection to its contexts.

Changelog

* 0.2.0. renamed property since a lot of people where too confused by nif:context

has domain
Context Collectionc
has range
Contextc

has first wordop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#firstWord

Current version:
0.1.0

This property links sentences to their first word.

has super-properties
has wordop
has domain
Sentencec
has range
Wordc

has last wordop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#lastWord

Current version:
0.1.1

This property links sentences to their last word.

Changelog:

0.1.1 fixed label

has super-properties
has wordop
has domain
Sentencec
has range
Wordc

has wordop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#word

Current version:
0.1.0

This property links sentences to their words.

has sub-properties
has first wordop, has last wordop
has domain
Sentencec
has range
Wordc

interop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#inter

Current version:
0.2.0

This object property models a relation between two nif:Strings. The name "inter" is kept generic and can be used to express any kind of relation in between (inter) two nif:Strings. Extensions can create rdfs:subPropertyOf for "head", "dependent", nif:substring and nif:nextWord.

Changelog:

* 0.1.0 initial commit of property "dependency"

* 0.2.0 changed name to "inter" which is more general than "dependency".

has sub-properties
transitive version of dependencyop
has domain
Stringc
has range
Stringc

narrower Contextop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#narrowerContext

Current version:
0.1.0

The inverse of nif:narrowerContext

has domain
Contextc
has range
Contextc

nif:nextSentenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#nextSentence

Current version:
0.1.0

This property (and nif:previousSentence, nif:nextWord, nif:previousWord and their transitive extension) can be used to make resources of nif:Sentence and nif:Word traversable, it can not be assumed that no gaps or whitespaces between sentences or words exist, i.e. string adjacency is not mandatory. The transitivity axioms are included in nif-core-inf.ttl and need to be included separately to keep a low reasoning profile. They are modeled after skos:broader and skos:broaderTransitive

has super-properties
nif:nextSentenceTransop
has domain
Sentencec
has range
Sentencec

nif:nextSentenceTransop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#nextSentenceTrans

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:nextSentence

has sub-properties
nif:nextSentenceop
has domain
Sentencec
has range
Sentencec

nif:nextWordop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#nextWord

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:nextSentence

has super-properties
nif:nextWordTransop
has domain
Wordc
has range
Wordc

nif:nextWordTransop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#nextWordTrans

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:nextSentence

has sub-properties
nif:nextWordop
has domain
Wordc
has range
Wordc

nif:previousSentenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#previousSentence

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:nextSentence

has super-properties
nif:previousSentenceTransop
has domain
Sentencec
has range
Sentencec

nif:previousSentenceTransop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#previousSentenceTrans

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:nextSentence

has sub-properties
nif:previousSentenceop
has domain
Sentencec
has range
Sentencec

nif:previousWordop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#previousWord

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:nextSentence

has super-properties
nif:previousWordTransop
has domain
Wordc
has range
Wordc

nif:previousWordTransop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#previousWordTrans

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:nextSentence

has sub-properties
nif:previousWordop
has domain
Wordc
has range
Wordc

nif:sentenceop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#sentence

Current version:
0.1.0

This property links words to their sentence.

has domain
Wordc
has range
Sentencec

OLiA linkop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#oliaLink

Current version:
0.1.1

This property links a string to a URI from one of the OLiA Annotation model, e.g. http://purl.org/olia/penn.owl#NNP

Changelog

0.1.1 - added subproperty of nif:annotation as per http://svn.aksw.org/papers/2012/PeoplesWeb/public_preprint.pdf‎ page 21

has super-properties
annotationop
has domain
Stringc

opinionop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#opinion

Current version:
0.0.0

This property is used to link to a marl:Opinion. We have not investigated marl, so it might be replaced. http://marl.gi2mo.org/?page_id=1#overview . InverseOf marl:extractedFrom

has domain
Stringc
has range
marl:Opinion

Provenance of OLiA tagop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#oliaProv

Current version:
0.1.0

Links to the URI describing the provenance

has domain
Stringc
has range
xsd:decimal

reference contextop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#referenceContext

Current version:
1.0.0

Links a URI of a string to its reference context of type nif:Context. The reference context determines the calculation of begin and end index

Each String that is not an instance of nif:Context MUST have exactly one reference context.

Inferences (nif-core-inf.ttl):

Instances of nif:Context do have itself as reference context, this is inferred automatically, MAY be materialized, as well.

OWL validation (nif-core-val.ttl):

This property is functional.

Changelog:

* 1.0.0: Introduced stable version.

has domain
Stringc
has range
Contextc

source URLop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#sourceUrl

Current version:
0.2.0

The URL the context was extracted from, e.g. the blog or news article url. Doesn't matter whether it is HTML or XML or plain text. rdfs:range is foaf:Document. Subproperty of prov:hadPrimarySource. In case the the string comes from another NIF String, please use nif:wasConvertedFrom

Changelog:

* 0.2.0 added subPropertyOf prov:hadPrimarySource

has super-properties
prov:hadPrimarySource
has domain
Contextc

sub stringop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#subString

Current version:
0.1.0

This property together with nif:subString, nif:superString, and their transitive extension can be used to express that one string is contained in another one. Examples: "a" nif:subString "apple" , "apple" nif:subString "apple". The transitivity axioms are included in nif-core-inf.ttl and need to be included separately to keep a low reasoning profile. They are modeled after skos:broader and skos:broaderTransitive

has super-properties
transitive version of subStringop
has domain
Stringc
has range
Stringc

super Stringop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#superString

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:subString

has super-properties
transitive version of superStringop
has domain
Stringc
has range
Stringc

transitive version of dependencyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#dependencyTrans

Current version:
0.1.0

Changelog:

* 0.1.0 initial commit of property

has super-properties
interop
has sub-properties
dependencyop
has domain
Stringc
has range
Stringc

transitive version of subStringop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#subStringTrans

Current version:
0.1.0

transitive version of subString

Inferences (nif-core-inf.ttl):

Transitive definition kept in a different ontology

Changelog:

* 0.1.0: Initial version.

has sub-properties
sub stringop
has domain
Stringc
has range
Stringc

transitive version of superStringop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#superStringTrans

Current version:
0.1.0

see nif:subStringTrans

has sub-properties
super Stringop
has domain
Stringc
has range
Stringc

was converted fromop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#wasConvertedFrom

Current version:
0.1.0

This property should be used, when mapping one nif:String or nif:Context to another.

It mainly is used to provide provenance during a conversion process, e.g. when removing tags from XHTML and then linking XPath URIs to NIF index based URIs (e.g. RFC 5147 with char=x,y).

An example of the usage of this property can be found here: http://www.w3.org/TR/its20/#conversion-to-nif

has super-properties
prov:wasDerivedFrom
has domain
Stringc
has range
Stringc

Data Properties

afterdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#after

Current version:
0.1.0

For each string you can include a snippet (e.g. 10-40 characters of text), that occurs immediately after the subject string.

has domain
Stringc

anchor ofdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#anchorOf

Current version:
1.0.0

The string, which the URI is representing as an RDF Literal. Some use cases require this property, as it is necessary for certain sparql queries.

has sub-properties
is stringdp
has domain
Stringc

beforedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#before

Current version:
0.1.0

For each string you can include a snippet (e.g. 10-40 characters of text), that occurs immediately before the subject string.

has domain
Stringc

begin indexdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#beginIndex

Current version:
1.0.0

The begin index of a character range as defined in http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5147#section-2.2.1 and http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5147#section-2.2.2, measured as the gap between two characters, starting to count from 0 (the position before the first character of a text).

Example: Index "2" is the postion between "Mr" and "." in "Mr. Sandman".

Note: RFC 5147 is re-used for the definition of character ranges. RFC 5147 is assuming a text/plain MIME type. NIF builds upon Unicode and is content agnostic.

Requirement (1): This property has the same value the "Character position" of RFC 5147 and it MUST therefore be castable to xsd:nonNegativeInteger, i.e. it MUST not have negative values.

Requirement (2): The index of the subject string MUST be calculated relative to the nif:referenceContext of the subject. If available, this is the rdf:Literal of the nif:isString property.

Changelog:

* 1.0.0: Introduced stable version.

has domain
Stringc

Confidence of OLiA tagdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#oliaConf

Current version:
0.2.0

The confidence is relative to the tool and can be between 0.0 and 1.0, it is for nif:oliaLink and therefore also for nif:oliaCategory.

Changelog:

0.2.0 merged confidence for category and link

has domain
Stringc
has range
xsd:decimal

end indexdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#endIndex

Current version:
1.0.0

The end index of a character range as defined in http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5147#section-2.2.1 and http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5147#section-2.2.2, measured as the gap between two characters, starting to count from 0 (the position before the first character of a text).

Example: Index "2" is the postion between "Mr" and "." in "Mr. Sandman".

Note: RFC 5147 is re-used for the definition of character ranges. RFC 5147 is assuming a text/plain MIME type. NIF builds upon Unicode and is content agnostic.

Requirement (1): This property has the same value the "Character position" of RFC 5147 and it must therefore be an xsd:nonNegativeInteger .

Requirement (2): The index of the subject string MUST be calculated relative to the nif:referenceContext of the subject. If available, this is the rdf:Literal of the nif:isString property.

has domain
Stringc

headdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#head

Current version:
0.1.0

The first few chars of the nif:anchorOf. Typically used if the nif:anchorOf

is to long for inclusion as RDF literal.

has domain
Stringc

is stringdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#isString

Current version:
1.0.1

The reference text as rdf:Literal for this nif:Context resource.

NIF requires that the reference text (i.e. the context) is always included in the RDF as an rdf:Literal.

Note, that the isString property is *the* place to keep the string itself in RDF.

All other nif:Strings and nif:URISchemes relate to the text of this property to calculate character position and indices.

Changelog

* 1.0.1 improved documentation

has super-properties
anchor ofdp
has domain
Contextc

lemmadp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#lemma

Current version:
0.1.0

The lemma(s) of the nif:String.

has domain
Stringc
has range
xsd:string

literalAnnotationdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#literalAnnotation

Current version:
0.1.1

see Towards Web-Scale Collaborative Knowledge Extraction http://svn.aksw.org/papers/2012/PeoplesWeb/public_preprint.pdf‎ page 21 .

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 Fixed page number

Part of speech tagdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#posTag

Current version:
discouraged

To include the pos tag as it comes out of the NLP tool as RDF Literal. This property is discouraged to use alone, please use oliaLink and oliaCategory. We included it, because some people might still want it and will even create their own property, if the string variant is missing

has domain
Stringc
has range
xsd:string

sentiment valuedp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#sentimentValue

Current version:
0.0.0

Between -1 negative and 1 positive

has domain
Stringc
has range
xsd:decimal

stemdp back to ToC or Data Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#stem

Current version:
0.1.0

The stem(s) of the nif:String.

has domain
Stringc
has range
xsd:string

Annotation Properties

categoryap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#category

Current version:
0.2.0

A simple annotation for machine learning purposes. The object can be anything, e.g. the literal "A. PRESS: Reportage" from Brown or any URI.

ChangeLog:

* 0.2.0 changed nif:class to nif:category due to conflict with Java

classAnnotationap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#classAnnotation

Current version:
0.1.1

see Towards Web-Scale Collaborative Knowledge Extraction http://svn.aksw.org/papers/2012/PeoplesWeb/public_preprint.pdf‎ page 12 .

Changelog:

* 0.1.1 Fixed page number

has sub-properties
OLiA Categoryap

most specific class referenceap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#taMsClassRef

Current version:
0.1.0

This property marks the most specific class from itsrdf:taClassRef. The rule is: from the set S of itsrdf:taClassRef attached to this resource taMscRef points to the one that does not have any subclasses in the set S except itself. So if taClassRef is owl:Thing, dbo:Agent, dbo:Person, dbp:Actor taMsClassRef is dbo:Actor

OLiA Categoryap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#oliaCategory

Current version:
0.1.3

This property links a string URI to classes of the OLiA Reference model. It provides a direct link for querying, thus it is a redundant optimization.

Changelog:

0.1.1 - added subproperty of nif:classAnnotation as per http://svn.aksw.org/papers/2012/PeoplesWeb/public_preprint.pdf‎ page 21

0.1.2 - removed domain axiom for annotationproperty

0.1.3 - improved documentation

has super-properties
classAnnotationap

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
dcterms
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
licenses
http://www.apache.org/licenses/
marl
http://purl.org/marl/ns#
nif
http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core#
nif-core
http://persistence.uni-leipzig.org/nlp2rdf/ontologies/nif-core/
ontologies
https://github.com/NLP2RDF/persistence.uni-leipzig.org/commits/master/ontologies/
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
prov
http://www.w3.org/ns/prov#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
skosxl
http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.